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“托福考试写作难,难于上青天”。孩子一直分数上不去,托福写作有没有什么好办法提分

1、连贯性

连贯性(coherence)是高分写作的一个特征。从字面上的意思而言指的是“团结在一起”。

在写作中指的是段落内部的内容能够流畅地从一个句子延展到另一个句子,有了连贯性,读者理解文章就会更容易!

例子1

My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. On either side of this river, which is 175 feet wide, are many willow trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind. In autumn the leaves of these trees fall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow. Second, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. Even though it is steep, climbing this hill is not dangerous, because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs. There are no trees around this hill, so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.

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2、主要连接词

注意字体加粗变大的单词,例如:First, Second, and The third amazing feature. 这些词是段落的主要连接词。通过主要连接词读者能够理解段落的主要组成部分以及各部分之间的关系。

上面的例子中,三个主要部分分别是1. 惠敦河部分;2. 惠敦山部分;3. 古树部分。通过这些主要的连接词,文章体现出了三个展开的支持内容并且体现出了段落内部内容的连贯性。

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3、次要连接词

在这个段落内部有一些字体变粗但是没有加大的词组,例如“these trees”和“this hill”。这些是次要的连接词,将每个主要部分内部句子和句子连接起来,最终实现整个段落的连贯性。

请阅读以下文字:

Each of the U.S. manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. The Mercury project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. The Mercury project tested rockets with the new Mercury space capsule, which could hold one person. The Gemini project was intended to find out whether two people could work in the weightless environment of space. Gemini astronauts took "spacewalks." They floated outside their spacecraft in a spacesuit, connected to it by a tether. Gemini astronauts tried out new flying skills. Some astronauts flew two spacecraft extremely close together; this procedure was called "rendezvous." On some Gemini flights, astronauts physically linked two spacecraft together. Linking, or "space docking," was a major goal of the Gemini program. The Apollo project, with three astronauts, was intended to test spacecraft and skills so that people could actually fly to the Moon and land on it. Performing scientific experiments on the lunar surface and collecting rocks for study on Earth were goals.

现在我们在文章中做出一些改变,加入较为主要的连接词和次要的连接词,那么文章将会更容易读,文章改动后的内容如下:

Each of the U.S. manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. For example, the Mercury project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. In addition, the Mercury project tested rockets with the new Mercury space capsule, which could hold one person. As another example, the Gemini project was intended to find out whether two people could work in the weightless environment of space. One way of doing this was by having Gemini astronauts take "spacewalks." That is, they floated outside their spacecraft in a spacesuit, connected to it by a tether. Gemini astronauts also tried out new flying skills. For example, some astronauts flew two spacecraft extremely close together; this procedure was called "rendezvous." On some Gemini flights, astronauts physically linked two spacecraft together. This linking, or "space docking," was a major goal of the Gemini program. Finally, the Apollo project, with three astronauts, had the goal of testing spacecraft and skills so that people could actually fly to the Moon and land on it. Other goals included performing scientific experiments on the lunar surface and collecting rocks for study on Earth.

上文第二个句子中的“for example”是主要的连接词,引出第一个支撑的内容“the Mercury project”;“As another example”引出了第二个内容“the Gemini project”;最后的“Finally”引出了“the Apollo moon project”。

  • 次要连接词主要存在于三个主要展开内容的内部。“the Mercury program”部分先说到这个计划的第一个目的是研究人类是否可以在外太空生存,接着使用了“in addition”引出了第二个目的,也就是火箭太空舱是否可以装下一个人。当然“in addition”并不一定非要引出的是第二个细节,这要取决于你是添加的第几个细节。

  • 第二部分的内容存在的次要连接词有“that is”、“also”、“for example”、“some astronauts”、“some Gemini flights”。这些次要连接词每个功能不一样,取决于他们和前面的句子之间的关系。that is是针对前面提到的Gemini计划的目标之一“space walk”,进行进一步的解释;“also”引出了Gemini 计划的第二个目的,也就是尝试新的飞行技能;“for example”是针对这些飞行技能进行举例子,“some astronauts”和“some Gemini flights”分别描述了两种飞行技能。

  • 第三个部分的次要连接词有“other goals”引出了除了测试航天器之外的其他计划目标;

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啄木鸟教育 发表于 2019-7-10 11:16
3、次要连接词
在这个段落内部有一些字体变粗但是没有加大的词组,例如“these trees”和“this hill”。这

主要的常用的英语连接词有哪些?
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小地方summer 发表于 2019-7-10 11:18
主要的常用的英语连接词有哪些?

下面让我们来熟悉一下常用的英语连接词包括哪些:

1、表示承接的过渡词:also,and,and then,too,in addition,furthermore,moreover,what's more, again,on top of that,another,first,second,third,fourth等。

2、表示时间顺序的过渡词:now,then,before,after,afterwards,earlier,later,immediately,soon,next,in a few days,gradually,suddenly,finally··等。(但是你可以感受到这些词是副词,所以原词条对于“连接词”即连词是错误的)

3、表示空间顺序的过渡词:near(to),far(from),in front of,behind,beside,beyond,above,below,to the right/left,around,outside等。

4、表示比较的过渡词:in the same way,just like,just as等。

5、表示转折的过渡词:but,still,yet,however,nevertheless,nonetheless,on the contrary,in spite of/ in spite of the fact that,even though,although,despite / despite the fact that等。

6、一方面,另一方面:on the one hand,on the other hand,for one thing,for another等。

7、表示结果和原因的过渡词:because,since,so,as a result,therefore,then,furthermore,otherwise等。
(as a result ,therefore, thus并不是连词而是副词,所以经常是放句首,用逗号与后面句子隔开)

8、表示目的的过渡词:for this reason,for this purpose,so that,in order to等。

9、表示强调的过渡词:in fact,indeed,surely,necessarily,certainly,without any doubt,truly,to repeat,above all,most important等。

10、表示解释说明的过渡词:for example,in fact,in this case,for actually, for instance等。

11、表示总结的过渡词:in a word,above all,,all in all,finally,at last,in conclusion,as I have shown,in another word,in brief,in short,in general,on the whole,as has been stated,last but not least,in addition等。

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啄木鸟教育 发表于 2019-7-10 11:18
下面让我们来熟悉一下常用的英语连接词包括哪些:
1、表示承接的过渡词:also,and,and then,too,in a

感谢老师整理分享
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统一性

统一性也是习作中另一个非常重要的要求。段落统一性意味着整个段落内部的句子是围绕一个主题句进行展开的:话题、支持句子、总结句都是围绕着主题句展开。如果在段内出现了一句不相关、联系性不强的句子,我们就会说这个段落缺少统一性,这个句子离题了。

请阅读以下段落,回答这几个问题:
这个段落是否具备统一性?
如果没有,哪一句话走题了?

Each of the Russian manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. For example, the Vostok project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. For another example, the Voshkhod project was intended to find out whether people could work in the weightless environment of space. One Voshkhod cosmonaut experimented with weightlessness by taking a "spacewalk." That is, he floated in a spacesuit outside his Voshkhod spacecraft, connected to it by a tether. The cosmonaut to do this was Alexei Leonov. Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U.S. astronaut Ed White. Finally, the Soyuz project, with three cosmonauts, had goals of testing spacecraft and spaceflight skills so that people could fly long missions in Earth orbit.

这个段落内容总体是不错的,但是其中有一个句子“Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U.S. astronaut Ed White”和主题句俄罗斯太空项目的主要目标无关,这句话谈论的是美国的宇航员,显然是个例题的句子。所以我们就可以判定这个段落缺少统一性。为了保证段落的统一性,我们必须删除这个句子,即便这句话在事实上是精确存在的。



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中国孩子的写作能力还是相对比较弱的,需要多练习
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看看好的高分文章的案例是怎么写的,多练习学习吧
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感谢老师整理分享
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这个改革好像写作没什么变化吧
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森特lady 发表于 2019-7-15 16:15
这个改革好像写作没什么变化吧

是的 ,口语听力都有相应的减少 但是难度不一定会减小
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时间有3.5个小时缩到3个小时 有8月考试的第一批试水的嘛
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